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What is the Theory T and Theory T+

Theory T and Theory T+ are complementary theories of Geert Hofstede since Theory X and Theory Y (by Douglas McGregor) are not suitable to explain the behavior of management in Southeast Asia (SEA) countries.

Both Theory T and Theory T+ are based on the following Southeast Asia assumptions:

  1. Work is a necessity, but not a goal of life.
  2. People need to find the right and peaceful place.
  3. Absolute objectives exist only with god.
  4. People should find their rightful place in peace and harmony with their environment.
  5. People behave as members of a family and/or group, and those who do not are rejected by society.

Theory T explains that the people that believe in traditional and rarely accept change.

Theory T+ explains that people believe that changes can happen, it is natural. So the Theory T+ people always accept the change.

Southeast Asia (SEA) countries consist of Brunei, Cambodia, Timor-Leste, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam, as well as the islands that exist in this area.


Theory T and Theory T+ Summary

Geert Hofstede also summarizes the characteristics of the behavior of people in Southeast Asia as follows:

Focus on maintaining social relations of people: Southeast Asian people focus on maintaining relationships. Focusing on living together like a family. As well as the promotion in career will be considered with trust and relationship more than skills.

The objective is based on God: The motivation to do something of Southeast Asian nations is willed by God.

Work is a necessity, but not a goal of life: Work is not everything in life for Southeast Asia people.

Find the right to live a peaceful life: Southeast Asia people are focused on finding the right place to live a peaceful life. They can adjust themselves to the environment and believe that everything changes are natural.

Tradition is a source of wisdom: The average people being dislikes change and will rightly avoid it if he or she can.